Psychology is an experimental science there are different methods of research and diagnosis .we ‘ll try to discuss all the aspects of research in psychology.
Developmental psychology, like other sciences, is based on the systematic collection of facts and on the in-depth analysis and comprehensive study of these facts. Studied and a number of scientific considerations
If the question is ((Do male children differ from five-year-old girls in the proportion of their participation in the fight?)), It is possible to collect the appropriate facts to answer it in a number of different ways, starting from directed observation and ending with experiment, and does not negate the possibility of multiple appropriate methods for answering a question an incident that distinguishes Or the preference of one or some of these methods over the other in answering the question posed. Therefore, we will confine ourselves to discussing the methods that are appropriate for answering the basic types of questions raised by development research without forgetting to indicate that any method or group of methods can be used as is the case in Mostly, to answer these questions, and the types of questions are distributedThat which is presented by developmental scientific research according to its associative, causal and differential nature
Associative methods are used when the research takes the following form: What phenomenon is its occurrence compatible with the occurrence of another? If we want to know how much the child’s vocabulary increases between the second and fifth years, for example, our question is associative, meaning that we want to know the number of words that correspond to a specific age, and we can answer the previous question using one of the following associative methods:
1- Guided Note:
The guided observation method in answering associative questions gives its best response when it deals with the recurrence of a behaviour, such as following a child in a situation or following a specific behavioural phenomenon in a specific group of children and this is called ((attitudinal assignment)) which is based on the researcher’s selection of a distinct position It records the reactions of children and uses the attitudinal assignment in the study of reciprocal relations, plays preferences, and so forth. The situational designation helps in this situation in general, the attitudinal designation is one of the formulas of the directed observation
There is also a time assignment, and it includes recording the number of times a behaviour is issued during a specific period of time. If the researcher is interested in knowing the ethnic differences in school attendance, he intends to observe a group of black children and another white child for a certain period and according to each child in each group the number of times that Pay attention to a school gesture, then calculate the average of each group in attendance and compare the averages with the image of observing each child for a certain period, and ask his observers to count both attendance and distraction behaviour in children of the two groups
2- This is what one of the researchers heard from children after the assassination of the country’s president when he asked the children: ((Or will God be the second target for their bullets?)), So the question took the starting point for the assumption that the child includes all the great people in one category.
If I want to verify this phenomenon, the children must be asked from different Ages, whether God is able to become president of the republic, who elects the president and who chooses God, or how does God become a god? Each of the aforementioned questions remains of its primary importance, and it is not possible to take one of them and ask the rest of them until after a survey study that helps to discover the ability of each of them to identify the fertile aspects of children’s thinking. ((Or will God be the second target of their bullets?))
So the question took the starting point for the assumption that the child includes all the great people in one category. Choose God or How Does God Become God? Each of the aforementioned questions remains of its primary importance, and it is not possible to take one of them and ask the rest of them until after a survey study that helps to discover the ability of each of them to identify the fertile aspects of children’s thinking.
3- the interview :
The interview requires that the researcher ask a number of questions about a specific topic and in the interview the child must be in a quiet place free from all that may distract attention. The interview begins after the researcher assesses harmony with the child by asking a number of general questions about matters that affect the latter in some way.
The prudent researcher is not satisfied with the previously prepared questions but rather seeks to ask what are called inquiring questions that are useful in clarifying the ambiguities of the child’s answers. Free inquiry questions require special skill on the part of the researcher as they have to guide the child’s thought without suggesting the answer or losing its objectivity, so it is better for the researcher. The junior should be trained to administer the Rorschach ink stain test, as it was formulated for the testThe aforementioned is a set of free and unguided inquiring questions, and the formulation of these questions and posing them has become a stand-alone art
Interpretation of results and honesty:
It is important to know whether the child’s response reflects his own thoughts, whether during or after the interview. That is why Biagh described five types of responses that must be clarified and distinguished during the interview:
It occurs when the child is annoyed, careless, or tired.
It occurs when a child answers without thinking of the answer
The child’s answer is distinguished when he realizes what the researcher wants to know and answers in his direction
the child’s answer is described when he thinks about a question and releases his answer from his depths and according to his belief.
It occurs when a child hastens to answer and triggers it after little or superficial thinking.
It is clear that the first three types of answer are insignificant, unlike the fourth and fifth types, as they lead to the gathering of solid information about the respondents.
And the researcher must be able to distinguish the random, coercive or suggestive answer from the libertarian, and he can do that during or after the interview. If the researcher feels that the respondent’s answer is not free or spontaneous, he has to give a counter-suggestion to the meaning of the child’s answer in a way that helps him determine the extent of its originality. The answer is in the child’s thought. The two responses, liberally and spontaneously, stand up to the counter suggestion, unlike coercion, randomness, or suggestion. A coherent perceptual schemeThe child’s answers were in harmony with his specific perceptual planning in the interview, his answers became representative of his idea. As for the perceptual plan’s dissonance with the answers, it is evidence that the child’s answer is false.
There is another way to verify the validity of the child’s answer. This method requires the researcher to be patient and wait until after the end of the interview in order to collect facts about the child’s thought and study it within the framework of the ideas of his peers and on this basis the child’s response is expressive if it is consistent with the answers of his peers and similar to it on the basis that individual harmony Categorization cannot happen if the answers are random, forced, or suggestive
In addition, the response of the child that appears close to the answers of the adult is considered evidence of a sound developmental trend and is considered sincere. It must be noted that the original developmental trend must show succession and continuity in the sense that the abstract answers for the child include traces of personalized ideas dating back to a previous age and that the answers reflect the lower ages. Looking towards the abstract as evidence of signs of growth, the first phenomenon is called plaque and the second phenomenon is prediction 0
Interpretation of results and consistency:
His statement neglected the problem of persistence, any problem of repetitive answer, and perhaps this is due to his own training in the field of biology and what may lead him to accept that what he finds in an individual is true to the whole species. The interview method and there are two basic procedures to determine the consistency of the answer: the first measure the continuity over time and interview each child twice, with an interval of not less than a month and not more than six months, and calculating the correlation between the two answers.
Correlation or lack thereof is an indicator of consistency. Individualism in stages or successions of development and it is necessary for stabilityAnswers that different researchers see the same thing in them, and the correlation between the independent classification of different researchers of an individual’s answers is an indication of the stability of those answers.
Consistency and honesty guarantee the objectivity of the facts gathered by the method of the interview, as they are two necessary conditions for a successful interview.
The researcher’s interest may not be focused on determining the compatibility between two phenomena, but rather in identifying the one causing the other, and he finds himself obliged to devise an appropriate method to solve this type of problem. It seems that sabotage represents the best way to solve the causal problems, as each experiment has one variable and another dependent, i.e. cause and effect
The experimental variable is considered independent if it changes by the will of the experimenter and his control or change is the nature itself, unlike the dependent variable that changes according to the changes of its independent counterpart. That the basic pattern of experimentation is well defined, it has a great degree of flexibility, as the independent variable can be anything from a disparate group of teaching methods to a group of ambiguous images, and the dependent variable can range between points in mental rhythms and the intensity of the fear response that is electrically determined He made a science developmentStatistics It is possible to study the relationships between an entire set of variables and another set of dependent factors in a complex design known as analysis of variance.
Use of the experimental method in child psychology:
Suppose the researcher is interested in the effects of the speed with which a group of numbers are read and the ability of children to retrieve those numbers. The lists of numbers are presented to children with five degrees of speed. Each degree represents one of the five levels of the independent variable and the points of children in retrieving numbers represent the dependent variable. The experiment can be adjusted by displaying lists The numbers in a recorded tape and by testing the ranks of any list randomly from the random assignment tables, and by using a random sample of males and females in equal numbers in each group. Subject to rate number list display speed
There is a second type of experimentation in developmental psychology called training experiments. In this type of experimentation, a group of respondents or groups of them give various forms of training in a task to find out which type of training is more rewarding than others. The simplest example of this type of experiment is due to a study. The effect of the nature of the training is distributed or intensive in the learning process.
For example, the researcher trains a group of children to memorize a poem with intense recitations that continue until all children memorize the poem and distribute the recitation of other categories of the same poem in varying periods of time and the actual time in which the poem was preserved is calculated by Each category then calculates the extent to which each category retrieves the poem over time on memorization, the method of recitation that takes less time to memorize than the other methods and which increases the amount recovered in the poem with it over the amount recovered with other methods is more feasible than the rest of the methods of recitation. Time together or separately represent the dependent variable, and it goes without saying that the researcher must control the different categories of variables that he thinks share the independent variable influencing its dependent counterpart.
Other methods are more feasible than the rest of the methods of recitation and it is evident that the method of recitation represents the independent variable and that the time of recitation and the amount retrieved from the poem over time represent together or separately the dependent variable. The independent influence on its dependent counterpart .
The other methods are more feasible than the rest of the methods of recitation and it is evident that the method of recitation represents the independent variable and that the time of recitation and the amount retrieved from the poem with the passage of time represent together or separately the dependent variable. It goes without saying that the researcher must control the different groups in the variables that he thinks to share the variable. The independent influence on its dependent counterpart. It shares the independent variable influencing its dependent counterpart 0It shares the independent variable influencing its dependent counterpart
The forms presented by the researcher may revolve around a specific child and not about children as a group, which imposes the use of an experimental procedure called the differential method approach, which includes mental prominence, self-determination, projective methods and play. The dimensions of the appropriate criterion for comparing the individual is one of the most difficult of the differential methods, and the following example helps to clarify the differential method, although it compares a class of children to another and not a child with a group of them, so the teacher may feel after moving from a rural school to another city that his children suffer reading problems and the teacher is in pain But not for his painWhat is justified, as he made a mistake in choosing the standard, so he had to compare the children of his civil school with the children of the Syrian Arab Republic and not with the children of a small village where a large proportion of its inhabitants live on commerce, and the average level of cultural parents in it rises to the third year of university.
The criterion must be appropriate for comparison and choose completely objectively This does not mean the lack of value of subjective standards, but rather that they often have a great value. The clinicians who practice measuring the intelligence of children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group who happened to have collected criteria for their intelligence, and these criteria are useful for clinical comparisons. The criterion was to compare the children of his civil school with the children of the Syrian Arab Republic and not with the children of a small village where a large proportion of its inhabitants live on commerce, and the average level of cultural parents in it rises to the third year of university. Rather, it often has a great value.
The clinicians who practice measuring the intelligence of children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group who happened to have gathered standards about their intelligence, and these criteria are useful for clinical comparisons. The criterion was to compare the children of his civil school with the children of the Syrian Arab Republic and not with the children of a small village where a large proportion of its inhabitants live on commerce, and the average level of cultural parents in it rises to the third year of university. Rather, it often has a great value. The clinicians who practice measuring the intelligence of children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group who happened to have gathered standards about their intelligence, and these criteria are useful for clinical comparisons.
With the children of a small village, a large percentage of its inhabitants live on commerce, and the average level of cultural parents in it rises to the third year of university. Children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group that happened to have gathered criteria about its intelligence, and these criteria are useful for clinical comparisons. Suitable for comparison and to choose with complete objectivity. This does not mean they lack of value of subjective standards, but rather that they often have a great value.
The clinicians who practice measuring the intelligence of children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group who happened to have collected criteria about their intelligence, and these criteria are useful. For clinical comparisons Suitable for comparison and to choose with complete objectivity. This does not mean they lack of value of subjective standards, but rather that they often have a great value. The clinicians who practice measuring the intelligence of children in their clinics evaluate their own mental standards to compare the intelligence of an individual with the intelligence of the group who happened to have collected criteria about their intelligence, and these criteria are useful. For clinical comparisons.
In the coming chapters we will talk a lot about intelligence prizes and the rose process, and what we would like to say now is that intelligence prizes often include the use of a broad expressive category for each one of the scores and on this basis, the difficulty of the item is determined by the rate of success or failure of a large group on that item It is not uncommon for the expressive categories to be determined in the prizes randomly, in a class or class manner that includes the constituencies of the entire nation, and this ensures that the civil, economic and cultural structures of the country are taken into account according to the percentages that make up them in the sample.
The population represents which we can compare to the individual the sample, and we are confident of the smallness of the error committed as a result of that comparison, however, despite that postulate, one must be careful in interpreting the results of the individual within the framework of a standard, the least that is said about it, that it is general and is not inferior to such a small group that can be a standard for the individual.
The self-report requires children to answer questions about themselves or about the world as they live in it. In a study about the value that the individual attaches to himself, for example, asking young people to refer in a list of a number of characteristics to those that apply to them and those that do not apply to them.
It can be said that the child who is more likely to have the number of positive traits over negativity has a positive image of himself, unlike his counterpart, who is more likely to have negative qualities over positivity, because his self-image is deteriorating and inferior. The self-report method has been used in a large number of studies to determine children’s attitudes towards school and in the study of anxiety.
The psychological aspect associated with the rose process, in addition to identifying the children’s professional capabilities and interests, but the self-report suffers in spite of its great benefits from the problem of social desirability and the consequent distortion of the results obtained from this method. He has to Many of us children and adults express their admiration and interest in something because they believe that society respects those who take this position on this matter and despises those who take the opposite position from it, and each of us has the ability to inspire expectations and answer it and it is difficult
The researcher should isolate that aspect that reflects the deep feelings of the individual or his original tendencies from the other side that reflects the individual’s expectations of what society desires matter despises those who take the opposite position from him, and each of us has the ability to inspire expectations and answer them, and it is difficult for the researcher to isolate that aspect that reflects the individual’s deep feelings or original trends from the other side that reflects the individual’s expectations of what society desires. The matter despises those who take the opposite position from him, and each of us has the ability to inspire expectations and answer them, and it is difficult for the researcher to isolate that aspect that reflects the individual’s deep feelings or original trends from the other side that reflects the individual’s expectations of what society desires.
Lie Detector Metrics:
Some researchers have suggested using measures to detect lies and distinguish the response indicating the deep feelings of the individual from its counterpart that indicates social desirability. However, the aforementioned measures only extend the finger of accusation to the lying person and are unable to distinguish the point expressing the original feeling from the point indicating the social desirability and not the lie detector items Except for extremist clauses, it is inconceivable for the individual to answer in complete denial or with absolute certainty, unless he is lying.
If a detector says ((that my behavior is always good)) and a child refers to him, our judgment that the child is a liar indicates the articles of self-report in the direction of social desirability, and in that case we can present answers All of the respondents were lying and hopingResearchers now have a revolutionary development in the field of self-report that helps to sift the points that express original feelings from their counterparts expressing social desirability. However, this hope is still far from being achieved.
The respondent can report self – knowledge of what is intended to, and predict social expectations and respond to its direction in contrast to the situation in projective techniques that are designed to detect the mysterious aspects of his personality with keeping him in the event of complete ignorance of what is intended to recall the projective methods test ink spots Rorschach test understanding topic for Murray Thematic Apperception Test.
The inkblot is excitement without form and meaning, and the researcher has to send in it the evaluators of the formula and meaning while he does so in the frame of reference for the deep aspects of his personality, and the individual is ignorant in the projective methods. Meaning and formula, but the individual’s familiarity with the projective method gives him some knowledge of those standards, which reduces the value of using them more than once for one individual and for people who have an idea about them
However, a recent development has taken place in the field of projective methods that led to the complete distraction of the researched individual’s thought of the personality component that is measured which enables the repetition of a similar formula to the projective method with a specific individual or even giving the same method to those who have familiarity with it.
Its ambiguity raises the concern of the respondent and his questions, which is what the diagnosed situations do themselves in the test of understanding the subject. As for the indicator of the hidden figures that appear on the characteristics of measuring intelligence, it is a clear stimulus that creates in the researcher the challenge to solve the problem as the task of the respondent is to identify a small simple shape and isolate it from within a more complex form The two simple and complex shapes are one of them near the other, and the respondent is asked to isolate the shape.
The simple hidden in the complex form during a specific time and the respondent believes that the key to measuring intelligence, while in fact, it reveals the perceptual pattern represented by the two features of dependency and independence. Undoubtedly, the owner of the independent personality is an individual who is able to deal with things without being distracted by external stimuli, unlike the owner of the dependent personality.
He suffers from the crisis of responding to the stimuli around him and the situation continues at the social level, so the owners of independent personalities make their decisions positively or negatively on their own and from their convictions, unlike the owners of dependent personalities who ask ((Mama)) when they decide on the simplest matters. The traditional form of ink spots or an examination that understands the topic in terms of the nature of the stimulus and submits itself to identification, interpretation or interpretation, in addition to its ability to attract the attention of the respondent away from what is measured, which makes it a serious measurement tool for probing the depths of personality.
Children’s play has a special place among differential methods, and children’s play does not differ in some aspects from projective methods, as it enables children to reveal their deeper selves without knowing that they are revealing those aspects, and the proponents of the psychoanalytic school give special importance to play. Frustration, inherent fears, or subconscious troubles, an expression that reduces the level of tension and anxiety in the child, and from this point of view, play is an important tool in revealing the depths of the child’s personality. Anxiety (see p. 104 -106) The usual ((mode)) of play is for children to release into a room that contains a number of dolls, doll caches, cubes and pictures, tools and raw materials necessary for drawing, playing music, and making various things. Researchers observe children’s movements in one of the basic forms of play, namely:
1- Free play in which the child is left to do what he wants
2- Guided play, where the researcher determines the topic of the play
3- Half-directed play in which the researcher or one of the players suggests the idea of the proposed game
Free play is the best form of play to reveal the deep components of the character. This does not mean that the other two formulas are not important, because the researcher can learn a lot about the deep aspects of the personality of the child being researched from knowing his reactions to directed or semi-directed play.
Toys are used for purely diagnostic purposes, so to know the emotional problems of the child, for example, this is placed in a position of directed play in a place that contains public and human dolls and household furniture. The child’s placement of mother, father and sister dolls in a room far from his room can be assumed that he feels rejected by his family or isolated from them and to make sure of The validity of this assumption asks the child to narrate what he did and inquire about some of the activities that he did or say that he did it.
It must be noted that despite the fact that play is a differential method, Erikson used it to answer associative questions. Erikson asked the children to build castles from the cubes available to them and then he noticed their buildings and pictures and found fundamental sexual differences as boys tended to erect tall buildings while girls tended to To establish closed spaces that are difficult to enter, and the researcher suggested, in explaining the aforementioned facts, to refer the distinct spatial orientation of each of the sexes to the organic differences between them and not to a kind of characteristic symbolism for each gender.
Children’s play is a huge source of rich and intelligent information about the respondents, especially children
And playing as a method of research in the field of science is characterized by flexibility that makes it answer questions of various causal, associative or differential patterns. It is important that play occupies the space that it must occupy and not exceed the function that it can perform. In terms of expression, sober scientific research does not hurt to collect the facts in all possible methods, provided that the results of any method are not read more than those results tolerate or more than what that method allows.