History of Child Psychology.
Child psychology emerged in contrast to most other sciences in response to the demands of multiple fields in systematic knowledge about children. There was an urgent need for a tool that helps distinguish the intelligent from the retarded mind. The need for effective methods of raising children and feasible means to achieve these methods also emerged and the behavioural practices of educators turned into ( (Systematic science)) free from the utilitarian demands that led to the creation of the aforementioned science, and the recent event leads us to believe that in order for psychology to remain vivacious and effective that it has known in the last half of the current century, it must be concerned with theoretical issues in addition to its concern for problems of a practical nature.
Child psychology developed between the First and Second World Wars and beyond
The Institutes for the Study and Care of Children conducted a huge amount of research including organic and mental growth and personality development in addition to comparative studies in the areas of language, motivation, emotion, perception, learning and moral development. Terman and his companions conduct their studies on gifted children.
Psychological studies have become active between the two wars, which led to the gathering of a huge and solid balance of information about child development. However, World War II hindered the development of child psychology after it dispersed most of its workers in the scattered army units and left the rest Them overloaded with the burden of teaching in universities and unable to think about sober scientific research,
The issuance of many periodicals was delayed or stopped, professional meetings were disrupted or non-existent, and the child psychology movement did not regain its pre-World War II pace until the beginning of the fifties, as the Soviets launched in 1957 their pioneering spacecraft to push the authorities The American Institute for examining its educational curricula and allocating the huge funds to study the phenomenon of learning and to introduce strict curricula in science, mathematics and sociology, which created the need for more scholars specialized in the study of child psychology.
Professional meetings were disrupted or non-existent, and the child psychology movement did not regain its pace that preceded the Second World War until the beginning of the fifties. In 1957 the Soviets launched their pioneering spacecraft to push the American authorities to examine their educational curricula and to allocate huge funds to study the phenomenon of learning and to introduce hard-line curricula in science, mathematics and sociology. Which created the need for more scholars specializing in the study of child psychology professional meetings were disrupted or non-existent, and the child psychology movement did not regain its pace that preceded the Second World War until the beginning of the fifties.
In 1957 the Soviets launched their pioneering spacecraft to push the American authorities to examine their educational curricula and to allocate huge funds to study the phenomenon of learning and to introduce hard-line curricula in science, mathematics and sociology. Which created the need for more scholars specializing in the study of child psychologyIts educational curricula and to allocate huge funds to study the phenomenon of learning and to propose strict curricula in science, mathematics and sociology, which created the need for more scholars specialized in the study of child psychology.
Its educational curricula and to allocate huge funds to study the phenomenon of learning and to propose strict curricula in science, mathematics and sociology, which created the need for more scholars specialized in the study of child psychology.
The civil rights movement that emerged in the 1960s did not affect the psychology of the child less than the effect of the Soviet challenge to America. The civil rights group unveiled the school backwardness of children of minorities and the resulting underdevelopment of depriving them of social mobility in a society characterized by mobility and that nourishes it.
Moving with the utmost speed to enrich the circles of children of minorities in an attempt to raise their achievement and their will to the current of American social mobility. Enrichment demands an evaluation of its results, which is impossible without conscious and systematic knowledge in the field of child psychology.
Americans’ knowledge and appreciation of the Swiss scientist Piaget contributed to the intensification of governmental, popular and academic interest in child psychology. In the 1950s, school curriculum designers realized the value of scientific knowledge provided by Piyage and the value of his knowledge in designing school curricula in harmony with the growth of various psychological phenomena in all developmental stages and raised the basic assumptions put forward. Baijah a large number of studies in the field of the growth of phenomena of thinking in general and perception of its action and its content in particular, starting with infants and ending with adults.
The aforementioned factors combined to push the US government to allocate generous funds to finance the study of various phenomena in its gradual development from origin to maturity and it was not resolved in 1970 until child psychology became completely subject to the US government because of its reliance on its generous budgets and no department of psychology has approved of steadfastness if It did not include a branch in child psychology
The origins of cognitive and linguistic studies in child psychology.
The assets that contributed to the establishment of child psychology were numerous, including the functioning of children, the movement for studying children, and their care institutes
1- Children’s Walk:
The first systematic research on children was conducted by their parents. In the year (1774) Pestalozzi published his memoirs that he was writing about the life of his three and a half years old child. Perhaps these notes are the first published in the world about children’s translations.
In 1787 published Tiedemann Tiedemann his remarks about the growth of his child Frederick, especially in the first two years of his life, and this study is characterized by scientific precision that we now see in modern research
In the year 1826 published Vrobl Frobel the first founder of the kindergarten in his famous world ((Human Education)) was studied material that depends essentially on the observation of children ‘s behaviour and monitoring at home and school together (Mr. 1975, p . 28)
Charles Darwin and baptized Darwin to save daily on Pour baby diary in 1840, but it is printed that did not try Notepad only after thirty years of writing was interested in Darwin’s manifestations of the evolutionary behaviour of the child and the relationship of that behaviour counterpart animal and notebook Darwin with his other works high position in the Comparative Psychology Day
In 1876, the French scientist Taine published his notes on the linguistic development of his daughter during the first six years of her life.
Psychologist Breyer recorded in his book ((The Child’s Mind)) the path of his son’s growth during the first four years of his life. Other such as the child’s language and play, and although Brier did not always isolate his observations from his inferences, his work still maintains a high scientific value.
We also mention among the students of biography, Al-Kut, and Shane, as the latter added some prizes to the curriculum of the biography and Sally expanded the curriculum by studying the biographies of the children of others in addition to studying his son’s biography and developing as a result his well-known book on child psychology.
Although scientists are preparing his revelation as the spiritual father of child psychology, Baldwin had preceded him to observe children on the other hand. Researchers in the fields of language, movement and feeling were the best biographers who influenced later researchers and in child psychology itself.
The biographers and their curriculum suffered from many deficiencies, which were represented in the following aspects:
1- The small number of children who studied
2- The fluidity of their observations and the release of most of them from the reins of scientific guidance
3- Subjectivity of observers
Despite the types of deficiencies mentioned, writing a biography has remained one of the most important curricula of (child psychology), which is characterized by a reasonable degree of objectivity.
Our evidence for this is exemplified by Piagah, who adopted the curriculum of biography and produced a number of books that still direct contemporary research in psychology and cause controversy among theoretical researchers in the field of human development.
2- Child Study Movement:
Children’s writers demonstrated an increasing scientific interest in studying the child during the nineteenth century, and they formed a pioneering movement for developmental and experimental approaches in psychology. The second step was the emergence of Stanley Hull, an American psychologist who contributed to the emergence of the Association of American Psychologists and a number of scientific journals that included the Journal of Formative Psychology ( Genetic )
Hull created the movement of studying the child that did not last for long, which worked to discover the growth of thinking in the child, and perhaps the reason for the death of that movement was attributed to the theory adopted by the researcher, which makes the growth of thinking in the child a simulation of the growth of human thought.
He has Hull in 1980 to oversee a large number of approved studies on the interrogation ( questionnaire Questionnaire Q: ) about the views of children in connection with everything from death and the end of sex and excellence training Hull researchers in the first period with the seriousness and sobriety, unlike the last stages of deserted them, which made the researchers suspect In the value of the results based on the interrogations of the last period of that movement
The child study movement directed despite the criticism that it was subjected to the people’s interest and feeling of the need to provide objective facts about children. Han hoped that such objective knowledge would necessarily lead to laying the right foundations for a new psychology, something that has not been done. The path towards establishing institutes for the study of children in basic universities in the United States, which constitutes the second step in the scientific movement to study children in America
3- Child study institutes:
Sears traced the traces of the aforementioned institutes and promised Ms. Cora Pricey Hills, the most important pioneer of the aforementioned movement, Hills believed that if scientific research could reach the improvement of cows, it should be able to improve children (Sears 1975, p. 19)
Hills has spent her best effort to establish child study institutes at the University of Iowa similar to agricultural institutes
Mrs. Hills began her work in 1906, but the attempt to establish the Institute for Child Welfare at the University of Iowa did not succeed until after an entire era had passed that the first global war marked its end. The institute that Mrs. Hills established had three functions: research, education, and information provision
The First World War worked to raise the interest of officials and people in the problems of children. The aforementioned concern was not due to the huge numbers of orphans of that war, but rather to the emergence of a basic fact related to Rose’s recruiting process and indicated the association of mental illnesses with the problems of poor upbringing.
However, the gap between the concerns of government officials and the people was still deep as the government’s interest in child institutes was not matched by its counterpart among the people. Mrs Rockefeller paid an amount of $ 12 million to establish child study institutes and achieve the aforementioned jobs. The expansion of these institutes had to arouse greater interest. Number of benefactor parents
The American economist Lawrence Frank is a decisive figure who worked to expand child study institutes and establish them on sound scientific foundations, due to his excessive interest in the happiness of children and his generosity in the effort in this field. Researchers with diverse backgrounds work collectively. Therefore, it is true to say that Frank founded the institutes and their lifetime with collaborating psychologists to accomplish the great scientific project.
Supporting the pooled funds at the Rockefeller Foundation led to the expansion of child study institutes. The Child Study Institute was established at Teachers College at Columbia University in 1924 and the Child Welfare Institute. At the University of Minnesota1925 and the Institute for the Study of the Child at the University of Basel in 1928 at the hands of Arnold Geisel, a student of Hull, who began studying children since 1911, in addition to the Institute for Child Development at the University of Berkeley.
Huge numbers of students went out to work in all American colleges and universities, so child psychology emerged as a systematic science in 1930. Especially in graduate studies programs that have graduated huge numbers of students set out to work in all colleges and universities in America. Child psychology emerged as a systematic science in the year 1930 0Especially in graduate studies programs that have graduated huge numbers of students set out to work in all colleges and universities in America. Child psychology emerged as a systematic science in the year 1930.