The history of Pakistan is witnessed many hardships from the start of its creation. Pakistan and India fought four wars on the Kashmir Issue.In 1949 on Kashmir issue, in 1965 India attacked on Pakistan without any reason, In 1971 and lost East Pakistan and Kargal war in 1998 . Pakistan faced hundreds brutal bomb blasts in different markets roads ,Trains and mosques. But the 16th December is worst of all .16th December 1971 divided the Pakistan in two parts in the form of Dhaka fall and created Bangladesh , in 2014 the sun of 16th December came with the worst news of the attack on Peshawar Army School.
History of Bangladesh
Historically, the name Bangladesh is derived from the word “Vanga” first mentioned in the Hindu text Aitareya Aranyaka (named between 500 B C and 500 A D). Based on: –
The Tibetan word for “Bans” means “wet and wet”. According to this definition, Bangladesh literally refers to the swamp.
In Bodo (Assam natives) the words “Bang” and “la” include “broad plains.”
The seventh most populous country in the world is Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is a lowland river country in South Asia. It is located between India, Myanmar and the Bay of Bengal with an area of 147,570 sq km. Bangladesh is the second largest river in the world (after the Amazon). It contains the confluence of the Ganges (Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), Meghna Rivers and their tributaries into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is bordered by India in the east, north and west. It shares a short border with Myanmar (Burma) in the southeast. The land is mostly flat, with 90% of its land less than 10 feet [10 m] above sea level. With a population of about 150 million, Bangladesh is the world’s most populous agricultural country.
Origin of Bangladesh:
Bengal is one of the many countries on the Indian subcontinent and Bangladesh is the eastern part of Bengal. The western part is called West-Bengal and is currently one of the 28 states of India. The people of Bangladesh and Bengal speak Bengali. Apart from West-Bengal and Bangladesh, Bengali is also spoken in parts of India such as Tripura and Assam, and in other parts of Myanmar. About 250 million Bengali speakers worldwide now and as the world’s most widely spoken language, Bengali ranks sixth. The first mention of this region was in a kingdom called Vanga. The Buddhists ruled the Vanga empire for centuries, but in the 10th century Bengal (Vanga) was predominantly Hindu. In 1576, Bengal became part of the Mogul Empire, and most of the people of East Bengalis converted to Islam. Bengal was ruled by British India from 1757 until Britain withdrew in 1947
India was divided by the British in 1947 just before its independence from two countries, India and Pakistan based on Hindu and Muslim religions. Pakistan had two divisions called West Pakistan and East Pakistan. After nine months of a long bloody war against Western Pakistan in 1971 East Pakistan became an independent state called Bangladesh with its parliamentary independence. The country was ruled by the military for many years, but a new democratically elected government was re-elected in 1991.Parliamentary elections took place in 1996, 2001 and 2008, with a peaceful transfer of power.
Dhaka Fall 1971.
In-spite of common ideology and a common struggle for emancipation, the geographical separation of East and West by 1000 miles exerted tremendous pressure on the two to go their own separate ways. This was true due to interference from India, which is considered to be the main villain and Pakistan’s number one enemy for its part in the events which lead to fall of Dhaka. The dreadful event took place, the extremists representing the spearhead of political thinking in both had already fallen apart.
Those in the West believed that East Pakistan was quite different from them both ethnologically and linguistically. They thought that East would get out eventually and what was keeping her in was the intelligent self interest and the apprehension that without the West she would not be able to survive. Those in the East thought that it was the East that earned bulk of the foreign exchange and that it is at her cost that economy of the West had been built.
India took advantage of this situation in East Pakistan and prepared Muslims Bangali Leaders and Sheikh Mujib.Sheikh Mujib started “Mukti Bahmi” movement in Bangladesh against non Bangla nations and specially West Pakistan .1971 – Sheikh Mujib arrested and taken to West Pakistan. In exile, Awami League leaders proclaim the independence of the province of East Pakistan on 26th March. The new country is called Bangladesh. Just under 10 million Bangladeshis flee to India as troops from West Pakistan are defeated with Indian assistance.
In 1972 – Sheikh Mujib returns, becomes prime minister of newly built Bangladesh. He begins a programme of nationalizing key industries in an attempt to improve living standards, but with little success.
In 1966 Mujib announced his controversial six-point political and economic plan for the independence of the East Pakistani province. Wanted: –
1.The government is united and a parliament by nature, and its members will be elected on a representative basis on the basis of population.
2.The provincial government is solely responsible for foreign affairs and defense
3.Each unit has its own funds and separate financial accounts
4.The tax will take place at the provincial level, where the provincial government is funded by constitutionally guaranteed grants
5.Each state unit can control its own foreign exchange earnings; and
6.Each unit can raise its own troops or troops.
Mujib’s six points directly contradict President Ayub’s plan to unify the country.
In January 1968 the government arrested Mujib.
On March 25,1969, Ayub resigned and handed over the reins to the chief administrator, General Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan. Yahya has announced that he sees himself as an interim leader whose job it will be to restore order and hold free elections for the new congress, which will be drafting a new constitution Bangladesh.
East Pakistan to Bangladesh
Pakistan lost its half part (East Pakistan )in 1971. India attacked on Pakistan .The war ended after the chief of the Pakistani forces, General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, along with 93,000 troops, surrendered to the joint forces of and Bangladesh’s Mukti Bahini and indian army.The war lasted for just 13 days. Rape, torture, killings and conflicts followed due to which eight to ten million people fled the country to seek refuge in India and they were pushed to Nepal and Pakistan in worst condition.It is estimated that between 300000 to 3000000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh.