May 17, 2021

EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH TECHNIQUES.

POPULATION, SAMPLE, AND SAMPLING.

Educational Research techniques always carry some tricks and techniques. Mainly there are two main Techniques as

Population Research Technique

Sampling Research Technique

Population.RESEARCH TECHNIQUE.

A lookup population research Technique is usually a giant series of persons or objects. That is the principal focal point of a scientific query. It is for the gain of the population that researches are done. However, due to the massive sizes of populations, researchers regularly can’t check each and every person in the population. due to the fact it is too high priced and time-consuming. This is the cause of why researchers count on sampling techniques.

the population is additionally regarded as a well-defined series of people or objects acknowledged to have comparable characteristics. All folks or objects inside a sure populace generally have a common, binding attribute or trait.

Sampling and samples
To select samples from population.

SAMPLING.RESEARCH TECHNIQUE.

A SAMPLE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES ARE THE GROUP OF PEOPLE FROM WITHIN THAT POPULATION FROM WHO WE ACTUALLY COLLECT DATA. AND SAMPLING REFERS TO THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH WE DRAW THE SAMPLE OUT OF THE POPULATION. FOR INSTANCE, IF MY MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION IS WHAT DO HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SUMMER VACATIONS OF A PARTICULAR SCHOOL. THEN OBVIOUSLY THE RESEARCH POPULATION WOULD BE ALL THE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, FOR MY STUDY I WILL ONLY COLLECT DATA FROM THE PARTICULAR STUDENTS, THEN THE STUDENTS OF THE SAME SCHOOL WILL BE MY SAMPLE, AND THE PROCESSOR PROCEDURE THROUGH WHICH CHOOSE THE STUDENTS OUT OF THE 400 IS KNOWN AS SAMPLING.

CATEGORIES OF SAMPLING RESEARCH TECHNIQUE.

THERE ARE TWO MAIN CATEGORIES OF SAMPLING PROCEDURES:

PROBABILITY SAMPLING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES.

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING RESEARCH TECHNIQUES. .

PROBABILITY RESEARCH TECHNIQUE

WE AS THE RESEARCHERS GUARANTEE THAT EVERY SINGLE SUBJECT FROM THE POPULATION RESEARCH TECHNIQUE WILL STAND THE SAME CHANCE OR THE SAME PROBABILITY OF BEING CHOSEN AT THESAMPLE — HENCE THE TERM PROBABILITY SAMPLING. IN NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING RESEARCH TECHNIQUEPROCEDURES, OBVIOUSLY, WE DON’T BOTHER WITH GUARANTEEING EQUAL PROBABILITY. BY THIS DEFINITION,

PROBABILITY SAMPLING IS ALWAYS MORE COMPLEX AND PERHAPS MORE DIFFICULT TO PERFORM BECAUSE WE AS THE RESEARCHERS HAVE THE DUTY OFGUARANTEEING EQUAL PROBABILITY.

RANDOM SAMPLING RESEARCH TECHNIQUE

THE FIRST ONE IS SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING PROCEDURE — MEANING WE ESTABLISH A SIMPLE PROCEDURE TO GUARANTEE EQUAL PROBABILITY. FOR EXAMPLE, IF I HAVE A POPULATION OF 100 AND I NEED A SAMPLE OF 20, I CAN PUT THE 100 NAMES INTO A JAR, SHAKE THEM UP, AND PICK OUT 20 NAMES WITH MY EYES CLOSED. THROUGH THIS SIMPLE PROCEDURE, WE CAN REASONABLY GUARANTEE THAT PERSONAL BIAS DOES NOT EXIST AT ALL AND THAT 20 NAMES THAT ARE PICKED OUT ARE PICKED OUT PURELY BY CHANCE.

SYSTEMATIC RANDOM

THE SECOND IS SYSTEMATIC RANDOM. THIS PROCEDURE SAYS THAT WE TAKE THE POPULATION SIZE FROM WHICH THE DESIRED SAMPLE SIZE AS SUCH WE CALCULATE THE SKIP INTERVAL. WE PICK A RANDOM STARTING POINT FROM WITHIN THE POPULATION SKIPS. THE AMOUNT OF SUBJECT AS IDENTIFIED THROUGH THE SKIP INTERVAL AND PICK THE NEXT SUBJECT. MATHEMATICALLY AFTER WE HAVE RUN THROUGH THE ENTIRE POPULATION WE WOULD HAVE SELECTED THE SAMPLE SIZE THAT WE DESIRE.

STRATIFIED RANDOM

THE THIRD PROBABILITY SAMPLING PROCEDURE IS STRATIFIED RANDOM. THIS IS TO ENSURE THAT WHATEVER SUBGROUPS THAT EXISTS IN THE POPULATION WILL BE RETAINED IN THE SAMPLE. FOR EXAMPLE, IF WE KNOW THE GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN THE POPULATION IS 80 20 MALE FEMALE AND WE WANT THIS TO BE RETAINED IN THE SAMPLE. WE WOULD NEED TO CREATE TWO STRATA OR TWO SUBGROUPS. ONE OF the MALES AND ONE OF the FEMALES, SO ESSENTIALLY WE BREAK THE POPULATION DOWN INTO TWO SUB-POPULATIONS AND SAMPLE THEM PROPORTIONATELY, SO, THAT THE GENDER DISTRIBUTION THAT EXISTS IN THE POPULATION WILL ALSO EXIST IN THE SELECTED SAMPLE,

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING PROCEDURES,

CONVENIENT SAMPLE

CONVENIENT SAMPLE. THIS BASICALLY MEANS THAT THE RESEARCHER TAKES A SAMPLE BASED ON CONSIDERATIONS OF WHAT IS EASY AND CONVENIENT. IF I NEED 10 PEOPLE AS A SAMPLE AND I HAPPEN TO HAVE 10 PEOPLE IN THIS CLASS, I CAN JUST TAKE THESE 10 PEOPLE THAT AS CONVENIENCE SAMPLE. NOW IS THIS SAMPLE TRULY REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ENTIRE POPULATION?

IS THAT OK? SURE IT IS OKAY IN SOME SITUATIONS. IF YOUR POPULATION IS VERY HOMOGENEOUS OR IF REPRESENTATIVENESS IS SIMPLY NOT A MAJOR CONCERN FOR YOU LIKE IN CERTAIN EXPLORATORY STUDIES, THEN A CONVENIENCE SAMPLE IS PERFECTLY ACCEPTABLE.

JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING

THE SECOND ONE IS JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING. THIS MEANS THE RESEARCHER WILL SET UP A LIST OF CRITERIA AND THEN JUDGE WHO HE OR SHE WANTS TO INCLUDE AS PART OF THE SAMPLE FOR A SPECIFIC STUDY. FOR EXAMPLE, IF MY STUDY CALLS FOR COLLECTING DATA FROM INDIVIDUALS MUST FULFILL A CERTAIN COMBINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OR EXPERIENCES, THEN JUDGMENTAL SAMPLINGMIGHT BE VERY USEFUL.

SNOWBALL SAMPLING

THE THIRD ONE IS SNOWBALL SAMPLING OR SNOWBALLING. ESSENTIALLY THIS MEANS , IF I CAN LOCATE ONE PERSON WHO WOULD QUALIFY TO BE INCLUDED AS PART OF SAMPLE. I WILL ASK HIM OR HER TO INTRODUCE ME TO MORE PEOPLE LIKE HIM OR HER WHO MIGHT ALSO BE ABLE TO FULFILL THE CRITERIA THAT I HAVE SET FORTH FOR SELECTING THE SAMPLE.

I hope you have understand all maintechniques and sub techniques Population, Sample and Sampling

BEST OF LUCK DEAR STUDENTS

“The road to success and the road to failure are almost exactly the same.

– Colin R. Davis

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