April 19, 2021
Research Types

RESEARCH DESIGN/RESEARCH TYPES.

Research Design.

START TO TALK ABOUT THE SEVEN RESEARCH DESIGNS or Research Types. THAT BROTHERTON DISCUSSED THE SEVEN RESEARCH DESIGNS ARE

1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

2.SURVEY DESIGN

3.COMPARATIVE DESIGN

4.CASE STUDY DESIGN

5.OBSERVATIONAL DESIGN

6. ACTION RESEARCH DESIGN

7.MIXED METHOD DESIGN

1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.

WE USE EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES TO PERFORMED TO EXAMINE CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS. THE IDEA BEHIND THIS RESEARCH DESIGN IS TO HAVE A CONTROL CONDITION VERSUS AN EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION OR A FEW EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS SO THAT THE DIFFERENCES AMOUNT OF VARIOUS CONDITIONS CAN BE IDENTIFIED WHICH WILL ENABLE RESEARCHERS TO INFER CAUSALITY. FOR INSTANCE,

IF WE WANT TO KNOW IF A TEACHER’S ATTITUDE HAS ANY EFFECT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE, WE WILL NEED TO SET UP AT LEAST TWO CONDITIONS:

CONTROL CONDITION.

A CONTROL CONDITION IN WHICH A TEACHER TEACHES WITH A COOL CALM COLLECTED ATTITUDE.

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION.

AN EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION IN WHICH THE SAME TEACHER TEACHES WITH MUCH ENTHUSIASM AND PASSION. THEN AFTER A SEMESTER MEASURE THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES IN STUDENT PERFORMANCE BETWEEN THE TWO CONDITIONS IN ORDER TO INFER WHETHER CAUSALITY EXISTS. AS SUCH, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ARE GENERALLY PERFORMED IN THE NAME OF CAUSAL OR PREDICTIVE OR EXPLANATORY RESEARCH.

2.SURVEY DESIGN

THE SECOND RESEARCH DESIGN IS SURVEY DESIGN. THE KEY IDEA BEHIND THIS RESEARCH DESIGN IS TO USE A STANDARDIZED INSTRUMENT TO COLLECT STANDARDIZED DATA FROM A LARGE NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS. RESEARCHERS CAN USE TELEPHONE-BASED SURVEYS OR INTERNET-BASED SURVEYS OR QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEYS. BUT REGARDLESS OF WHAT MEDIUM OR CHANNEL THE RESEARCHER USES, THE IDEA HERE IS TO COLLECT RATHER STANDARDIZED DATA FROM A LARGE GROUP OF PEOPLE. SURVEY STUDIES ARE USUALLY PERFORMED FOR DESCRIPTIVE PURPOSES. OTHER WORDS WE WOULD TYPICALLY SURVEY PEOPLE IN ORDER TO DESCRIBE SOMETHING.THE IMPLICATION OF THIS PROCESS CAN BE EXPLORATORY OR EVEN CAUSAL, BUT THE PROCESS ITSELF IS USUALLY DESCRIPTIVE BY NATURE.

COMPARATIVE DESIGN.

THE THIRD RESEARCH DESIGN IS COMPARATIVE DESIGN. THIS IS STRAIGHT FORWARD THE IDEA IS TO COMPARE ONE THING TO SOMETHING ELSE. RESEARCHERS MAY WANT TO COMPARE THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE BETWEEN DUTCH AND GERMAN STUDENTS IN OUR SCHOOL. OR PERHAPS THE DIFFERENCE IN TERMS OF STUDENT SATISFACTION BETWEEN CHINESE AND EU STUDENTS IN OUR FACULTY. BROTHERTON CALLS THIS KIND OF RESEARCH COMPARATIVE RESEARCH. THIS RESEARCH DESIGN IS GENERALLY DESCRIPTIVE.

4.CASE STUDY DESIGN

THE FOURTH RESEARCH DESIGN IS CASE STUDY ACCORDING TO BROTHERTON A CASE STUDY IS USUALLY EXPLORATORY AND QUALITATIVE. IT IS A” CASE STUDY” BECAUSE THE STUDY IS PERFORMED ON A PARTICULAR CASE – AND BY CASE WE TYPICALLY MEAN AN ORGANIZATION. BECAUSE WE PERFORM CASE STUDY IN JUST ONE ORGANIZATION, THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY MAY NOT GENERALIZE TO OTHER ORGANIZATIONS, INDUSTRIES, OR GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS. HOWEVER, AS CASE STUDIES ARE MOST OF THE TIME EXPLORATORY IN NATURE, GENERALIZABILITY IS USUALLY NOT IN MAIN CONSIDERATION ANY WAY, SO IT’S ALL GOOD.

5.OBSERVATIONAL DESIGN.

OBSERVATION DESIGN, IS BASICALLY MEANS THE RESEARCHER WILL COLLECT DATA BY LOOKING AT THINGS. OBSERVATION CAN BE COVERT OR OVERT, QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE, PERFORMED MERELY AS AN OBSERVER OR AS A PARTICIPANT, DEPENDING ON WHAT YOU THINK IS BEST AND WHAT YOUR RESEARCH CALLS FOR, THE RESEARCHER CAN CHOOSE ALL THESE DIFFERENT FORMATS OF OBSERVATION. WE USE OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN FOR ALL THREE RESEARCH TYPES. EXPLORATORY, DESCRIPTIVE, AND EXPLANATORY.

6. ACTION RESEARCH DESIGN

ACTION RESEARCH IS RESEARCH DESIGN INVOLVES THE RESEARCH TAKING CERTAIN ACTIONS WITHIN AN ORGANIZATION. FOR EXAMPLE, RESEARCHER IMPLEMENTS A CERTAIN PROMOTIONAL CAMPAIGN AND THEN MEASURES THE EFFECTS OF IT IN TERMS OF REVENUES GENERATED. THIS IS BIT OF A TRICKY RESEARCH DESIGN BECAUSE THE RESEARCHER WOULD GENERALLY WANT TO PRESENT THE STUDY AS BOTH DESCRIPTIVE AND CAUSAL. OBVIOUSLY, IF I WANT TO IMPLEMENT SOMETHING IN AN ORGANIZATION AND THEN WRITE IT UP AS A RESEARCH STUDY, I WOULD NATURALLY WANT TO DESCRIBE HOW THE IMPLEMENTATION WENT. BUT USUALLY, I WOULD ALSO WANT TO MAKE THIS CAUSAL CLAIM — SAYING BECAUSE, OF THIS IMPLEMENTATION, THERE WAS THIS OUTCOME. BUT AS DISCUSSED EARLIER, CAUSALITY IS IN FACT QUITE DIFFICULT TO ESTABLISH, SO AN ACTION RESEARCH DESIGN IS ALSO SOMETIMES REFERRED TO AS A LIVE EXPERIMENT, ACCORDING TO BROTHERTON, ACKNOWLEDGING. THAT IT IS NOT A STRICT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN BUT SOMETHING LIKE THAT.

MIXED-METHOD DESIGN

FINALLY, THE LAST RESEARCH IS MIXED-METHOD DESIGN. IT MEANS A STUDY IN WHICH WE USE DIFFERENT DATA COLLECTION METHODS OR DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGNS OR COMBINED. THIS IS ALSO A RESEARCH DESIGN THAT NEEDS TO BE APPROACHED CAUTIOUSLY, ESPECIALLY FOR BACHELOR’S STUDENTS. BECAUSE THINK ABOUT IT, WHY WOULD I WANT TO COMBINE DIFFERENT COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS, DIFFERENT TYPES OF DATA PROBABLY FROM DIFFERENT POPULATIONS, AND SAMPLES IN JUST ONE STUDY. OR EVEN MORE COMPLICATED, WHY WOULD I WANT TO COMBINE MULTIPLE RESEARCH DESIGNS IN JUST ONE STUDY?

IF I TRULY HAVE A NEED TO DO SO, WHY DON’T I JUST DESIGN AND PERFORM A SERIES OF STUDIES WITH EACH ONE HAVING A CLEAR SCOPE AND USING A CLEAR METHODOLOGY? SO JUST LIKE THE ACTION RESEARCH DESIGN, THIS MIXED METHOD DESIGN IS ALSO BIT OF A TRICKY ONE SO IF YOU THINK YOU WANT TO USE THIS RESEARCH DESIGN FOR YOUR BACHELOR’S DISSERTATION, I THINK YOU SHOULD TALK TO YOUR ADVISOR TO MAKE SURE THAT THIS RESEARCH DESIGN IS TRULY NEEDED.

SO THERE YOU GO THESE ARE THE THREE RESEARCH TYPES AND THE SEVEN RESEARCH DESIGNS BASED ON THE BROTHERTON BOOK.

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